Classified as such when you need more than 100 mg a day.
Sodium, Chloride and Potassium are electrolytes, maintain fluid balance.
For 19-50 year olds, you need 1500 mg, but do not exceed 2300 mg in order to reduce the risk of hypertension. Sodium is a principal positive electrolyte that regulates fluid balance, and sodium balance which is maintained by the kidneys. You get 40% of sodium from table salt (sodium chloride), but 80% of it in processed food, but you can also find the stuff naturally in foods.
Ish the major negative electrolyte of the extracellular fluid. It also maintains fluid balance, as well as the acidity of the gastric acid (HCl). An adequate amount is 2300 mg, but do not exceed 3600. You get it in table salt (sodium chloride)
The principle electrolyte of the intracellular fluid. It does the fluid balance thing too, but it also helps with muscle contraction and nerve impulse and helps with lowering high blood pressure. You need 4700 mg a day. While there is no Upper Limit set for Potassium, it doesn't mean you can't overdose on them. Too much: hyperkalemia (irregular heartbeats is a symptom), too little: hypokalemia (kidney stones, bone turnover). You get potassium through fruits and vegetables in general, but you also see them in diuretics and salt substitues (KCl instead of NaCl).
These three relate to your bone health.
It's functions are bone and teeth health and may reduce the risk of obesity. You find this shit in your dairy and canned salmon. AI is at 1.0-1.3 g, with the UL at 2.5g. Too much causes hypercalcemia, too little: osteoporosis.
Good for them bones and teeth, and cell membranes, too. You can find it in meat, fish, poultry and dairy. When you have too little, you get muscle weakness and bone pain. Too much gives you calcification of nonskeletal tissues.
Helps with muscles and nerves function, and bones, as well as acting as a catalyst. You find this shit in whole grains, dark green vegetables, nuts and legumes.
Gives protein that beautiful 3D shape and acts as a food preservative. Find it in meat, fish, poultry.
Classified as such when you need less than 20 mg a day.
It exists as heme iron (found in animal sources) and non-heme iron (plant sources). Found in the body with hemoglobin and myoglobin. It's a cofactor to enyzme and carries oxygen. You find it in iron-rich products and animal products (such as red meat). There's this stupid thing where if you have too little, you'll get iron-deficiency anemia (symptoms: fatigue, weakness), but too much is toxic, which usually happens from taking too many supplements. Hemochromatosis is what too much is called, kidney and liver failure, yaaay.
It helps with iron absorption, and links the proteins in the connective tissue as well as maintaining the immune system. Food sources include seafood, nuts, seeds and legumes. Too much gives you stomach cramps and liver damage, maybe some Wilson's Disease. Too little is a rare deficiency in the U.S.
Helps with growth and development, wound healing and taste perception. Vegetarians might need more zinc than other people, because zinc is found in protein-rich foods. Too much inhibits copper absorption and can surpress the immune system. A mild deficiency impairs your immunity and makes your tastebuds arll abnormal.
it's an antioxidant and regulates the thyroid hormone. Found in meat, seafood and grains. Toxicity is selenosis, deficiency is rare in the US but it's called Icehan disease.
It fights against dental carries and is found in drinking water. Too little: dental carries! Too much, fluorosis.
Works with insulin, and is found in grains, meat and poultry. Toxicity has not been known as a risk, but a deficiency impairs insulin action. Chromium supplements can't cure diabetes and will not build muscle mass.
It makes the thyroid hormone and is found in iodized salt, in excess impairs the thyroid function, a deficiency is goiter. And then there's cretinism which is severe deficiency during pregnancy, irreversible mental & physical retardation.
It's a macronutrient metabolic thingy and ti's found in whole grains, nuts and legumes. Too little causes nerve damage, too much... diarrhea, cramps, and nausea.
Hypertension is the silent killer, which contributes to atherosclerosis (when the arteries acquire plague!) To control that shit, you might want to reduce your weight, increase physical activity and have a balanced diet. The DASH (Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension) diet can help lower blood pressure.
Speaking of blood pressure, when you take it, it's in mm Hg. The first reading is the systolic blood pressure (which is a measure of when the blood pumps) and is the higher number, while the second is the diastolic blood pressure (the resting time). A normal needing is <120, <80, you should be worried if it's >140, >90-99.
But let's talk about osteoporosis. It results from too little of calcium. Your peak bone mass in your early 20's. You might consider taking a BMD test (bone mineral density test). Some risk factors: gender (women, older), ethnicity (African American), body types (smaller), smoking, lower physical activity, alcohol, inadequate calcium and vitamin D.