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MAJOR MINERALS
Classified as such when you need more than 100 mg a day.

Sodium, Chloride and Potassium are electrolytes, maintain fluid balance.
SODIUM
For 19-50 year olds, you need 1500 mg, but do not exceed 2300 mg in order to reduce the risk of hypertension. Sodium is a principal positive electrolyte that regulates fluid balance, and sodium balance which is maintained by the kidneys. You get 40% of sodium from table salt (sodium chloride), but 80% of it in processed food, but you can also find the stuff naturally in foods.

CHLORIDE
Ish the major negative electrolyte of the extracellular fluid. It also maintains fluid balance, as well as the acidity of the gastric acid (HCl). An adequate amount is 2300 mg, but do not exceed 3600. You get it in table salt (sodium chloride)

POTASSIUM
The principle electrolyte of the intracellular fluid. It does the fluid balance thing too, but it also helps with muscle contraction and nerve impulse and helps with lowering high blood pressure. You need 4700 mg a day. While there is no Upper Limit set for Potassium, it doesn't mean you can't overdose on them. Too much: hyperkalemia (irregular heartbeats is a symptom), too little: hypokalemia (kidney stones, bone turnover). You get potassium through fruits and vegetables in general, but you also see them in diuretics and salt substitues (KCl instead of NaCl).

These three relate to your bone health.
CALCIUM
It's functions are bone and teeth health and may reduce the risk of obesity. You find this shit in your dairy and canned salmon. AI is at 1.0-1.3 g, with the UL at 2.5g. Too much causes hypercalcemia, too little: osteoporosis.

PHOSPHORUS
Good for them bones and teeth, and cell membranes, too. You can find it in meat, fish, poultry and dairy. When you have too little, you get muscle weakness and bone pain. Too much gives you calcification of nonskeletal tissues.

MAGNESIUM
Helps with muscles and nerves function, and bones, as well as acting as a catalyst. You find this shit in whole grains, dark green vegetables, nuts and legumes.

SULFUR
Gives protein that beautiful 3D shape and acts as a food preservative. Find it in meat, fish, poultry.

TRACE MINERALS
Classified as such when you need less than 20 mg a day.

IRON
It exists as heme iron (found in animal sources) and non-heme iron (plant sources). Found in the body with hemoglobin and myoglobin. It's a cofactor to enyzme and carries oxygen. You find it in iron-rich products and animal products (such as red meat). There's this stupid thing where if you have too little, you'll get iron-deficiency anemia (symptoms: fatigue, weakness), but too much is toxic, which usually happens from taking too many supplements. Hemochromatosis is what too much is called, kidney and liver failure, yaaay.

COPPER
It helps with iron absorption, and links the proteins in the connective tissue as well as maintaining the immune system. Food sources include seafood, nuts, seeds and legumes. Too much gives you stomach cramps and liver damage, maybe some Wilson's Disease. Too little is a rare deficiency in the U.S.

ZINC
Helps with growth and development, wound healing and taste perception. Vegetarians might need more zinc than other people, because zinc is found in protein-rich foods. Too much inhibits copper absorption and can surpress the immune system. A mild deficiency impairs your immunity and makes your tastebuds arll abnormal.

SELENIUM
it's an antioxidant and regulates the thyroid hormone. Found in meat, seafood and grains. Toxicity is selenosis, deficiency is rare in the US but it's called Icehan disease.

FLUORIDE
It fights against dental carries and is found in drinking water. Too little: dental carries! Too much, fluorosis.

CHROMIUM
Works with insulin, and is found in grains, meat and poultry. Toxicity has not been known as a risk, but a deficiency impairs insulin action. Chromium supplements can't cure diabetes and will not build muscle mass.

IODINE
It makes the thyroid hormone and is found in iodized salt, in excess impairs the thyroid function, a deficiency is goiter. And then there's cretinism which is severe deficiency during pregnancy, irreversible mental & physical retardation.

MANGANESE
It's a macronutrient metabolic thingy and ti's found in whole grains, nuts and legumes. Too little causes nerve damage, too much... diarrhea, cramps, and nausea.

OTHER
Hypertension is the silent killer, which contributes to atherosclerosis (when the arteries acquire plague!) To control that shit, you might want to reduce your weight, increase physical activity and have a balanced diet. The DASH (Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension) diet can help lower blood pressure.

Speaking of blood pressure, when you take it, it's in mm Hg. The first reading is the systolic blood pressure (which is a measure of when the blood pumps) and is the higher number, while the second is the diastolic blood pressure (the resting time). A normal needing is <120, <80, you should be worried if it's >140, >90-99.

But let's talk about osteoporosis. It results from too little of calcium. Your peak bone mass in your early 20's. You might consider taking a BMD test (bone mineral density test). Some risk factors: gender (women, older), ethnicity (African American), body types (smaller), smoking, lower physical activity, alcohol, inadequate calcium and vitamin D.
I let the work pile up, don't I?

I now have a presentation to prepare by 13:40 in the morning, but due to random circumstances, I wasn't able to sit down to it until about 22:00 (of the previous night). At 3:18, currently, I've got most of the outline worked. It requires sources, more coherent sentences, and an accompanying slideshow. I wish I could remember whether or not I'm presenting tomorrow or Friday XD

There's also two papers to finish up the English exam, due by midnight (so... 23:59 tonight), and a shower I should take before bed. Class at 9:10 later today (can't skip because she counts attendance, very strict), a break in which I'll probably do the slideshow and print the outline, class again at 12:40-2:45, then papers and sleep. Something like that.

Also, I have to lead my group and prepare them for a presentation over the first part of Fahrenheit 451, which we deliver on Friday. Which is essentially just a run-through of our Jeopardy sort game and making sure everyone in the group read their portion and did their questions.

After all this, the next immediate assignment is some quiz and homework for Chemistry (22nd), making sure I take the Chemistry placement test (21st) and grab a course pass to enroll for Chem I, hopefully in time to get the professor that fits my schedule. Then there's a paper for Speech due the 30th and the accompanying presentations, which we'll do after Thanksgiving break. That's when Finals hit, so then it's less assignments, and more studying! Oh noez! Notice how I don't even factor that lovely 5 day weekend for Thanksgiving? WE DON'T GET TO SLEEP IN COLLEGE!

It bites that I haven't gotten to story goodness for NaNoWriMo. I'm debating holding off the original novel for the most part and working on a silly crack story that's been floating around in my head instead, just after I catch up and before finals madness set. Hopefully, it'll appease the fans.
And the hominins for that matter~

Like last night, when I typed up some stuff regarding vitamins and nutrition, I'm going to type up the answers to the essay questions in my study guide to prepare for the biological anthropology exam tomorrow. Which I also didn't get to study for.

Here goes.

I. Identify ten anatomical changes associated with bipedialism, including at least one trait from each of the following categories: pelvis, limbs, feet, thorax and vertebral column.
Changes seen in the pelvis include the ilium broadened and shortened as well as a flaring ilium and a wider pelvis outlet. Changes seen in the legs would be that the legs are longer than the arms, the knees are close together, inward tapering of thigh bones and the that the knee join locks when extended. Changes in the feet would be the loss of grasping ability, non-divergent big toes, and general changes in bone shapes. Changes in the vertebral column, would be the s-shape in the backbone, the vertebrae being perpendicular to the base of the skull and the foramen magnum centered under the skull. Finally, there are changes in the thorax area: the barrel-shaped rib cage and the internal organs located lower in the body cavity.

II. Describe the physical differences among australopithecines, early hominins and late hominins. Then describe the physical differences between gracile and robust australopithecines.
One way to quickly spot an australopithecine is through the presence of a sagittal crest, as well as more prognathic facial profile (as opposed to the more orthognathic of hominins). If a projecting chin is present, you have a late hominin, as the others are absent of the projecting chin. A projecting nose is a trait for hominins, with the late hominins projecting the most; australopiths have non-projecting, flat noses.The australopiths also tend to have a smaller and more elongated cranial vault and more pronounced post-orbital constriction. Robust australopiths tend to have the most broad cheek bones, while the late hominins tend to have the smallest (to moderate, and moderate for all other cases). The mandible of australopiths tend to be large, with robust australopiths being the largest while the hominins have moderate sized ones, and the late hominins may even be small. The molars are also large in the australopiths, largest in robust australopiths, moderate in early hominins and small to moderate in late hominins. The canine teeth in the australopiths are large, but slightly project in gracile australopiths, as opposed to robust australopiths.

III. Do you think that the australopithecines should be considered and classified as "humans?" Why or why not?
I actually have no idea how to answer this. So... back to the books. ~.~

Nov. 14th, 2011

My last entry refused to reveal itself.

What the hell.

Learn the vitamins. All the vitamins.

Through unfortunate circumstances that I'm mostly at fault for, I have to learn all about the vitamins before the exam in approx. 9 hrs. Typing them up might help.... maybe...

VITAMINS (in general)

Vitamins are organic compounds that are needed in small amounts; they are essential nutrients. Vitamins can be destroyed by air, water or heat, so you have to be careful in preparation for consumption such as refrigerating them and reducing cooking time. You should get your vitamins from foods, even if they're fortified, unless your doctor tells you otherwise, because those vitamins can't give you the essential phytochemicals. Supplements are really only a good idea for pregnant & lactating women, older people, strict vegetarians and those with medical conditions.


VITAMIN A
Men should have up to 900 micrograms per day, while women only need about 700 micrograms per day. Vitamin A comes in two forms - active and inactive. The inactive form, known also as the precursor for the active, is beta-carotene, which is found in carrots, sweet potatoes, pumpkin (and pumpkin seeds), spinach and broccoli. The good news is that if you overdose on this form, you just get carotendodermia - orange skin, which you might recall from House (as well as referenced in Scrubs). The active form of Vitamin A is found in three forms, which are retinol, retinal, and retinoic acid. You can find them in animal sources such as liver, fish oil and food that is fortfied. Too much of Vitamin A's active form can be toxic, with the UL set at 3,000 micrograms, while a deficiency can lead to night-blindness, and later, xerophthalmia, which is dryness and permanent damage to the cornea of the eye (the outermost, clear bit). Vitamin A in general aids with healthy skin and eyes, as well as bone growth and immunity. Also, Vitamin A is fat-soluble.

VITAMIN B1
Also known as Thiamin. Women, you need 1.1 milligrams. Men, you need 1.2 milligrams. A day. Functions include nerve impulses transmission and the breakdown of alcohol in the body. (Which, by the way, makes enriched bread a good hangover treatment). So, yeah, you can find this shit enriched and in whole grain products. And pork. Go figure. A deficiency causes beriberi (meaning "I can't"), which isn't common in the US, but it caused confusion, muscular weakness and abnormal heart action. It can make your fingers tingle. There's something about Wernicke-Korsakoff Syndrome, which has something about chronic alcohol abuse. Yeah.

VITAMIN B2
Riboflavin, bitch. Try saying it. It's light-sensitive. Same daily needs as B1. This shit metabolizes energy and keeps cells healthy. You find it in milk and yogurt and the excess is ecreted in urine. Cool, right? A deficiency causes dry and scaly lips. Ew.

VITAMIN B3
Niacin. Men need 16 milligrams and women need 14 milligrams. The precursor is trypotphan, I guess. It also metabolizes energy and is prescribed by physicans to lower cholestrol and and fatty acids, but don't go diagnosing yourself, okay? A deficiency causes Pellagra, symptoms are your 4 Ds: Dermatitis, Diarrhea, Dementia and Death. The UL is 35 milligrams. Got it memorized?

VITAMIN B6
No fancy name. Men need 1.3-1.7 milligrams; Women need 1.3-1.5 milligrams. It's a co-enzyme in protein metabolism and makes hemoglobin. Keeps immune and nervous system healthy. Found in meat, fish and legumes - peanut butter, broccoli, potatoes, spinach and cantaloupe. A deficiency can cause skin inflammation and confusion, difficulty walking. Too much causes numbness and tingling.  The UL is 1.0 grams.

VITAMIN B12
Official name; cyanocobulamin. This shit can be stored in the liver, and requires an instrinsic factor for absorption. Vegetarians and vegans alike know all about this dumb shit because it's found only in animal sources and a deficient is rather damaging. Its regular functions are to make DNA and red blood cells; it's super important to the brain. When deficient, you get macrocytic anemia. Whatever. What really fucking sucks is that by the time your storage has been used, three years have passed and that's when the problem will come to your attention. And you'll get all this crazy nerve system issues like paralysis and nerve damage. A symptom would be tingling sensation. I take this supplement all the time.

VITAMIN C
It's also known as ascorbic acid. This co-enzyme helps with iron absorption and collagen synthesis, as well as acting as an antioxidant, but has no basis as being effective with preventing colds, as is a common myth. Men need 90 milligrams daily while women need 75 milligrams. Smokers should tag an extra 35 milligrams to their diet because the toxins in tobacco destroys Vitamin E's effectiveness. You can get Vitamin C from citrus fruit, peppers and tomatoes. A deficiency in Vitamin C leads to scurvy, which is the breakdown of collagen. The UL (upper limit) is set at 2,000 milligrams; too much can lead to kidney stones and hemochromatosis (liver and heart damage), which occurs due to taking supplements.

VITAMIN D
Also known as the "sunshine vitamin." As long as you have adequate exposure to the sun (UV rays), you'll synthesize all the Vitamin D you need (which is 5-15 micrograms, depending on age). If you don't have enough, you can get Vitamin D through fortified milk, yogurt and cereal, as well as fatty fish. Vitamin D acts as a hormone, which regulates both Calcium and Phosphorus. When deficient, it can cause rickets in children, osteomalacia in adults (which is essentially rickets... FOR ADULTS!!) Overuse of supplements is toxic, leading to hypervitaminosis D which deposits unnecessary shit into your kidneys. The UL is set at 50 micrograms.

VITAMIN E
The official chemical name is alpha-tocopherol. Vitamin E is a good antioxidant and anticoagulant. Vitamin E is found in vegetable oils, nuts and seeds. A deficient in E is rare. In cases of chronic deficiency, there is free radical damage going on on cell membranes. Toxicity can occur, due to over-consumption with those damn supplements. The UL is set at 1000 milligrams a day;the DRI is set at 15 milligrams.

VITAMIN K
Two forms: menaquinone, which is synthesized in your intestinal tract, and phylloquinone ,which is found in green plants and vegetable oils and would be the primary source of your DRI 120 micrograms (for men) and 90 micrograms (for women). This shit helps with blood clotting and bone health. It's a comfort to know that a deficiency is rare in affecting blood clotting (but might have problems absorbing fat) and there is no known toxicity that has occured.


FOLATE
Commonly known in its synthetic form - folic acid 0 this vitamin is found in enriched grains, legumes and leafy greens; You'll want 400 micrograms of that. Functions of this vitamin include DNA synthesis and preventing birth defects... like a boss. When it's deficient, you get macrocyte anemia. And that sucks. Too much can mask a Vitamin B12 deficiency anemia. That also sucks.

PANTOTHENIC ACID
There's not many deficiencies for this co-enzyme for metabolizing energy. It's widespread in food, really.

BIOTIN
Also wide-spread and metabolizes energy, but this one breaks down protein and fat as well, and can be synthesized by glucose. Deficiency: Avidin from raw egg whites.

That covers one chapter. Wewt. There's also eating disorders and weight management.
/passes out

DISCLAIMER: ALL THIS INFORMATION COMES STRAIGHT FROM NUTRITION AND YOU, SECOND EDITION, WRITTEN BY JOAN SALGE BLAKE AND FROM MY INSTRUCTOR'S NOTES, BUT WAS TYPED IN THE DEAD OF NIGHT. THIS INFORMATION SHOULD BE DOUBLE-CHECKED BEFORE PUT INTO ANY USE. (THAT IS, I WOULD NEED TO MAKE SURE THERE ARE NO TYPOS)

Writer's Block: Secret love

Have you ever had a secret admirer? What happened?
Let's see if Writer's block will get the juices flowing - while I'm still in the planning process :)

A secret admirer? Oh, yes, it was a short-lived, cute little thing. He left me a note in my locker for Valentine's Day and another later with a gift. He was the sweetest guy I had ever met - fellow band geek, nerd, friend. It was such a shame I was taken at the time, though I sometimes wonder what would've happened if I'd come to my senses and given him a chance.

I guess I'm doing NaNoWriMo

Yep.

Or, well, writing, but independently.

I guess there's some kind of official thing and prizes and etc.?

Eh. Whatever, I don't have time.

Writer's Block: Happy birthday, savvy?

Which film starring birthday boy Johnny Depp is your favorite, and why?

Secret Window - It's the only movie I could watch over and over again.

Letters!

Sent approx. (2) to one, meikitsune 
Sent approx. (3) to one, theta2serpentis 

I don't know when either of you are supposed to get them, but I heard Friday, possibly.